Introduction


Infertility is a tragic condition. The agony & trauma of sub-fertility is best felt 7 described by infertility couples themselves. Though infertility does not claim an individual's life it inflicts devasting.

The term infertility is used to describe the situation where a couple does not succeed in achieving a spontaneous pregnancy in spite of the "exposure to the risk of pregnancy" during a given period of time. Infertility may be either permanent and irreversible, e.g. in many cases of azoospermia, and is then referred to as "sterility", or the probability of spontaneous conception may be decreased, but not reduced to zero, when the term "sub fertility" is used.

Evaluation of the male should take place with each couple coming to consultation for infertility, and it must be performed at the beginning of their investigation. Indeed, male investigation is easy, cheap and painless and it will result rapidly in diagnostic categorization.

The WHO manual also provides general guidelines to the management of the infertile couple with a male factor. It should be kept in mind that male sub fertility is commonly associated with one or more factors that decrease the probability of conception in the female partner. Correction of such factors in the female partner must always be performed in parallel with treatment of the male partner, and the couple must be counseled on the diagnostic procedures and therapeutic options.

The special programmer of Research Development and Research training in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that there are 60 to 80 million infertile couples worldwide.

It has been also estimated that 15 to 20 % of the couples are infertile. As a result of there is an ever increases demand for diagnostic & therapeutic interventions for the management of infertile couples.

Semen Analysis


In the investigation of an infertile couple, at least one semen analysis is always mandatory, even if the postcoital test appears to be normal. Semen analysis includes the assessment of the characteristics of spermatozoa and of seminal plasma, and must be performed using standardized methods at least equivalent to the minimum standards described by WHO.

"Semen analysis was not complete unless the volume, motility, concentration & morphology were determined."

The American Fertility Association established minimum requirements for Semen Analysis & Semen Parameter standards. several studies have emphasized the importance of laboratory methods & training of staff to achieve reliable results in routine semen analysis.


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